Sunday, March 31, 2013

Insurgent Mexico

Reed, John, Insurgent Mexico, United States: Simon & Schuster, 1969.

Available online.

John Silas "Jack" Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 17, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and socialist activist, best remembered for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World.
In the autumn of 1913 John Reed was sent to Mexico by the Metropolitan Magazine to report the Mexican Revolution.[17] He shared the perils of Pancho Villa's army for four months, present with Villa's Constitutional (Constitutionalist) Army (whose "Primer Jefe" was Venustiano Carranza) when it defeated Federal forces at Torreón, opening the way for its advance on Mexico City.[18] Reed's time with the Villistas resulted in a series of outstanding magazine articles that brought Reed a national reputation as a war correspondent. Reed deeply sympathized with the plight of the peons and vehemently opposed American intervention, which came shortly after he left. Reed adored Villa, while Carranza left him cold. Reed's Mexican reports were later republished in book form as Insurgent Mexico, which appeared in 1914.

The Aztecs of Mexico: Origin, Rise and Fall of the Aztec Nation

Vaillant, George Clapp, The Aztecs of Mexico: Origin, Rise and Fall of the Aztec Nation, Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1951.

Available at Questia.

See also American Anthropologist © 1945.

George Clapp Vaillant (April 5, 1901, – May 13, 1945) was an American anthropologist.
Vaillant was known for the reconstruction of the early stages of Mexican Culture. His excavations at Zacatenco, Ticomán and El Arbollo established the framework for the Formative or Preclassic period in central Mexico. He was also known for his synthesis of Aztec history, which is also written in Aztecs in Mexico. Throughout his research of relating archaeology to the events and descriptions of colonial sources and Mexican traditions, Vaillant concentrated on problems of chronology and culture history. Later in his career Vaillant excavated at several Aztec sites (Chiconautla and Nonoalco), but failed to publish these projects. Several decades later Christina Elson and other scholars at the American Museum of Natural History completed the study of artifacts from these sites and began a program to publish them.

From the Foreword:
This book is a history of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico and the civilizations which they wrought. It was a hard book to write. It will be a hard book to read. There are two reasons for this unfortunate circumstance. First, the Indians did not have the same goals in life that we have, so that their pattern of life is different from our own and difficult to understand. Second, Indian history has to be reconstructed from what we can find, so that much of the material, like techniques of making household implements, does not fall within the scope of our usual historical reading. The first four chapters deal with such reconstruction, and the reader is warned in advance that the going will be very difficult. These pages may be skipped if he is not particularly interested in such a historical background. The remaining chapters are based on contemporary observations made by conquering Spaniards and by the Aztecs themselves.

Mexico South: The Isthmus of Tehuantepec

Covarrubias, Miguel, Mexico South: The Isthmus of Tehuantepec, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954.

Available online.

Reviewed in the American Sociological Review © 1947.

Reviewed in the American Anthropologist © 1947.

From the book-cover:
”The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is a bottleneck of jungle and brush shared in equal parts by the states of Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, separating rather than uniting four important states – Yucatan, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas – from the rest of Mexico. It is the true natural frontier between mountain chains that run down the Continent and break into low hills with narrow passes that have been, since the days of Cortes, a focus of interest, oft-renewed, as a means of communication between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.” Thus Covarrubias. The means by which he has evoked the very nature of that region are geography, ethnology, anthropology, archaeology, history, economics, plastic arts, literature, music, folklore, religion, food, drink, sexual customs, and a dozen others. The result is a brilliant evocation of an entire civilization, throwing light upon the history and culture of all Mexico.

Incidents of Travel in Yucatan

Stephens, John L., Incidents of Travel in Yucatan, Vols. I & II, New York: Dover Publications, 1963.

Available online: Vol. 1, and Vol. 2.

John Lloyd Stephens (November 28, 1805 – October 13, 1852) was an American explorer, writer, and diplomat. Stephens was a pivotal figure in the rediscovery of Maya civilization throughout Middle America and in the planning of the Panama railroad.

Sunday, March 24, 2013

The Netherlands, French and British Areas of the Caribbean

Institute of Caribbean Studies, The Netherlands, French and British Areas of the Caribbean, (Study done for the United States-Puerto Rico Commission on the Status of Puerto Rico), Rio Piedras: University of Puerto Rico, January, 1966.(2 copies)

See also THIS.

Table of Contents:

Map of the Caribbean.

I. Overview and Summary, by Thomas G. Mathews.

II. Country Papers:

A. The Netherlands.
1. The economic background of the Netherlands Antilles, by Fuat M. Andic, Suphan Andic & Gregorio F. Tromp (assistant)
2. The economic background of Surinam, by Fuat M. Andic & Suphan Andic
3. The Charter of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, by Thomas G. Mathews
4. The government and politics of the Netherlands Antilles, by Thomas G. Mathews
5. The political conditions in Surinam, by Thomas G. Mathews & Tjark Petzoldt (consultant)

B. France.
1. The economic background of the French Antilles, by Fuat M. Andic & Suphan Andic
2. The political status of the French Caribbean, by Gérard Latortue & Annette J. Biscombe (translator)

C. Great Britain.
1. Jamaica, Trinidad-Tobago, and the British West Indies, by Thomas G. Mathews
2. Prospects for Federation in the British Leeward and Windward Islands, by M.S. Joshua & Annette J. Biscombe

Selected Bibliography.

From Dr. Thomas G. Mathews’ Preface:
The Institute of Caribbean Studies was established by the University of Puerto Rico in 1958 as a center for study and research. Although administratively a part of the University’s Faculty of the Social Sciences, the Institute is also active in the fields of the humanities and education. The objectives of the Institute of Caribbean Studies are (1) to encourage, support and serve as a center for scholarly research and exchange in the Caribbean; (2) to give disciplinary training to Caribbean specialists; (3) to stimulate interest in the Caribbean among university students, both Puerto Rican and visiting, offering them preliminary training and, when possible supporting them in advanced studies. The work of the Institute is supported in part by a grant from the Ford Foundation for the period 1963 – 1968.

A Comprehensive Agricultural Program for Puerto Rico

Koenig, Nathan, A Comprehensive Agricultural Program for Puerto Rico, Washington D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1953.[Two copies - one hardcover and a softcover]

Reviewed in Journal of Farm Economics © 1954.

Cited in The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

From the Introduction:
This is a study of problems of people and their land in an area where both people and land long have been underemployed and also under-nourished.
The study points out that if the economic base of the island is to be effectively broadened and strengthened, it is essential that far more attention be given to diversifying and increasing production for local needs to the full extent that it is economically feasible while at the same time maximizing economic production for export. While agriculture, directly or indirectly, provides about 40 percent of Puerto Rico’s total net income, the mainstay of the economy is the growing of sugarcane and the production of sugar. More than two-fifths of the total cropland and most of the best soils are planted to this single crop from which is derived a little more than one-half the value of farm production
Since a great deal of land in Puerto Rico is still concentrated in the hands of a relatively few owners, the study urges that the program of divesting corporations of land holdings that are in violation of the 500-acre limitation be carried to completion by the Land Authority….

Selected Trends and Issues in Contemporary Federal and Regional Relations

Friedrich, Carl J., Selected Trends and Issues in Contemporary Federal and Regional Relations, (Study done for the United States-Puerto Rico Commission on the Status of Puerto Rico), Unknown binding, December, 1965.

See also THIS.

Carl Joachim Friedrich (born June 5, 1901 in Leipzig; died on September 19, 1984 in Lexington, Massachusetts) was a German-American professor and political theorist. His writings on Law and Constitutionalism made him one the world's leading political scientists in the post-World War II period. He is one of the most influential scholars of Totalitarianism.

Puerto Rico: An Essay in the Definition of a National Culture

Mintz, Sidney W., Puerto Rico: An Essay in the Definition of a National Culture, (Study done for the United States-Puerto Rico Commission on the Status of Puerto Rico), Unknown binding, 1966.

See also THIS.

From the Introduction:
This essay deals with the writings of social scientists on the nature of Puerto Rican culture, and seeks to clarify some of the concepts they use. I have drawn mainly from scholars in sociology and anthropology; where relevant, the views of observers in related fields are included.
The essay’s concern is with culture – its definition, its relevance, and its particular meaning in the Puerto Rican case. To a major extent, political implications are not spelled out. The hope is, however, that the political dialogue may be clarified by achieving some common agreement on terms.

The United States and the Dilemmas of Political Control

Perkins, Whitney T., The United States and the Dilemmas of Political Control, (Study done for the United States-Puerto Rico Commission on the Status of Puerto Rico), Unknown binding, August, 1965.

See also THIS.

Extract (pp. 2-3):
The central principle of American political belief is that the government derives legitimacy from the consent of the governed. This is a subversive and divisive idea, an invitation to revolution, incompatible, one might suppose, with successful government of a vast and diverse state. But it has been sufficiently achieved in the Constitution and practice of the United States to have become on the whole a source of strength. It can dissolve empires, but it can also be a potent, attractive and adhesive force for the nation that can exemplify it.

Inventory of the Departments, Agencies, and Instrumentalities of the Executive Branch – Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

School of Public Administration, Inventory of the Departments, Agencies, and Instrumentalities of the Executive Branch – Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, (Study done for the United States-Puerto Rico Commission on the Status of Puerto Rico), Rio Piedras: University of Puerto Rico, January, 1966.

See also THIS.

From the Preface:
Pursuant to directives of Dr. Luis F. Silva Recio, Director of the School of Public Administration of the university of Puerto Rico, we take pleasure in submitting the following report to the United States-Puerto Rico Status Commission created under the provisions of Public Laws number 88-271, 88th Congress of the United States (February 20, 1964) and number 9, Legislature of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (April 13, 1964). The report consists of an inventory of the executive departments, agencies and public corporations of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and all of the federal agencies with offices in Puerto Rico. It is divided in two parts. Part I covers the Commonwealth agencies; Part II covers the federal agencies.

Sunday, March 10, 2013

Slaves of the White God: Blacks in Mexico, 1570 - 1650

Palmer, Colin A., Slaves of the White God: Blacks in Mexico, 1570 - 1650, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Reviewed in The Hispanic American Historical Review © 1977.

From the book cover:
Slaves of the White God, the second study in any language of slavery in a New World colony in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, is the first to deal in particular with colonial Mexico. Based on many previously unexamined primary sources in Spain and Mexico – wills, trial records, notarial papers, Inquisition documents, official reports, shipping records – it carefully reconstructs the evolution of slave society and answers many questions of racial, sociological, psychological, economic, and historical import that have burdened slave studies for the last decade.

Juarez and His Mexico

Roeder, Ralph, Juarez and his Mexico: a biographical history, Vols. 1 & 2, New York: Viking Press, 1947.

Reviewed in The Hispanic American Historical Review © 1948.

Reviewed in Kirkus.

Ralph Roeder (April 7, 1890 - October 22, 1969) was an American author. His father was German and his mother French. He was born in New York. He studied in the University of Columbia and in Harvard.

Benito Juárez:
(21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) …born Benito Pablo Juárez García, was a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served five terms as president of Mexico: 1858–1861 as interim, then 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872 as constitutional president.[3] He resisted the French occupation of Mexico, overthrew the Second Mexican Empire, restored the Republic, and used liberal efforts to modernize the country.

El Comercio y la Crisis Colonial

Villalobos, Sergio, El Comercio y la Crisis Colonial, Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, 1968.

Reviewed in The Hispanic American Historical Review © 1973.

Cited in Journal of Latin American Studies © 1976.

Sergio Fernando Villalobos Rivera (Angol, Región de la Araucanía, 19 de abril de 1930) historiador chileno, que obtuvo el Premio Nacional de Historia en 1992. (…)Su producción historiográfica está relacionada con una nueva visión de la historia de Chile, muy influido por la Escuela Francesa de los Anales, en particular por Fernand Braudel, desechando mitos muy arraigados en la historiografía nacional (la Guerra de Arauco, Diego Portales, etc.) y proponiendo una visión basada en procesos globales y sociales, abandonando la historia de acumulación de datos y fechas. Algunos de sus opiniones, especialmente sobre los mapuches, han generado polémica.

Las Ideas Políticas en Chile

Donoso, Ricardo, Las Ideas Políticas en Chile, México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1946.

Disponible en línea.

Reviewed in The Hispanic American Historical Review © 1948.

MEMORIA CHILENA, Copyright 2004, Todos los derechos reservados:
Ricardo Donoso (1896 – 1985) fue un representante tardío de la escuela de intelectuales liberales decimonónicos, motivado por el estudio de la historia política chilena en el siglo XIX. Como funcionario y director del Archivo Histórico Nacional, tuvo acceso a un abundante caudal de fuentes primarias a partir de los cuales construyo su obra historiográfica. En ella destaca, además de la historia política chilena, su interés especial por la figura de Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna, y por la constitución de la propiedad territorial en la región austral del país.

Sunday, March 3, 2013

The Eagle, the Jaguar, and the Serpent: Indian Art of the Americas

Covarrubias, Miguel, The Eagle, the Jaguar, and the Serpent: Indian Art of the Americas: North America: Alaska, Canada, the United States, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954.

Reviewed in Kirkus.

Reviewed in American Anthropologist © 1957.

José Miguel Covarrubias Duclaud (22 November 1904 — 4 February 1957) was a Mexican painter and caricaturist, ethnologist and art historian. (…) Covarrubias is known for his analysis of the pre-Columbian art of Mesoamerica, particularly that of the Olmec culture, and his theory of Mexican cultural diffusion to the north, particularly to the Mississippian Native American Indian cultures. His analysis of iconography presented a strong case that the Olmec predated the Classic Era years before this was confirmed by archaeology.

Indian Art of Mexico and Central America

Covarrubias, Miguel, Indian Art of Mexico and Central America, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1957.

Reviewed in American Antiquity © 1958.

Reviewed in Kirkus.

José Miguel Covarrubias, Artista e investigador mexicano, una de las figuras más polifacéticas de la historia cultural de su país. Caricaturista, dibujante, ilustrador, diseñador teatral, pintor y, como resultado de una formación autodidacta y empírica, autor de importantes estudios antropológicos y etnológicos. Hizo aportaciones a la museología y, en una breve etapa de funcionario, en los inicios de los años 50, impulsó la experimentación y la creatividad en la danza moderna mexicana.

Seven Treasure Cities of Latin America

Kitchell Whyte, Bertha, Seven Treasure Cities of Latin America, New York: October House, 1965.

From the Introduction:
In this book about seven Spanish Colonial cities in Latin America, the emphasis is chiefly on the art of the Colonial period and its present remains. The Spanish Colonial period spanned about three hundred years from the Conquest to the Independence, extending roughly from the early sixteenth century to the early nineteenth. Accordingly, the story of the seven cities starts four hundred years ago. From the cities selected, you can follow the course of the Spanish Conquest. From Hispaniola it wound to Puerto Rico, to Mexico and Merida and from there to Cartagena. From Cartagena it went by sea to Portobelo and across the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific and then southward. Inland, it went to Quito and Tunja and, farther down, it crossed over the Andes to Cuzco. Pizarro, exploring westward out of Cuzco, founded Lima near the coast. Part of the treasure of these cities is their history and the memories of what they once possessed.

The Art and Architecture of Mexico

Rojas, Pedro, The Art and Architecture of Mexico: from 10,000 B.C. to the present day, Middlesex: Hamlyn, 1968.

Description excerpted from the cover:
The background against which their artistic triumphs were achieved over the centuries is described in vivid and scholarly manner by the author. There are over 130 illustrations including 42 in color, many specially photographed by Dr. Rojas.

”El Túnel”: Portrayal of Isolation

Gibbs, Beverly J., ”El Túnel”: Portrayal of Isolation, reprinted from Hispania, Vol. 48, No. 3, September, 1965.

Available online.

The Tunnel (Spanish: El túnel) is a dark, psychological novel written by Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato about a deranged porteño painter, Juan Pablo Castel, and his obsession with a woman. The story's title refers to the symbol for Castel's emotional and physical isolation from society, which becomes increasingly apparent as Castel proceeds to tell from his jail cell the series of events that enabled him to murder the only person capable of understanding him. Marked by its existential themes, El Túnel received enthusiastic support from Albert Camus and Graham Greene following its publication in 1948.

Hacia Una Revolución Educativa

Peñalver, Luis Manuel, Hacia Una Revolución Educativa, Caracas: Ministerio de Educación, 1974.

Discurso de orden pronunciado por el Dr. Luis Manuel Peñalver, en la sesión especial celebrada el 15 de enero de 1974, en ocasión de rendir homenaje a los educadores venezolanos con motivo de celebrar el día del maestro.

Illusion and Reality in Inter-American Relations

Office of Church and Society, Board of Christian Education, Illusion and Reality in Inter-American Relations, [From the Social Deliverances of the 181st General Assembly (1969) of The United Presbyterian Church, USA, San Antonio, Texas], Philadelphia: A Social Progress reprint, July – August, 1969.

Accompanied by the following letter (extract) by John H. Sinclair (Regional Secretary for Latin America):
Dear Sir:

The General Assembly of the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America issued in May, 1969 two statements which will interest you as a Latin Americanist. They were prepared over a period of three years. Several members of the Latin American Studies Association aided us in this effort. Of course, as is natural for a statement approved by an assembly representing three million church members, these documents are partially the result of compromise. Nevertheless, for us they represent significant new departures…

Exhibition arranged by the National Archives for the IVth International Congress of Archives

IVe Congrès International des Archives, Exhibition arranged by the National Archives for the IVth International Congress of Archives: a short catalogue, Stockholm, 17-20 août 1960.

Marks were placed by the following entries on page 18:
118. Admiral Rayalin’s proclamation receiving the colony St. Bartholomew from the French, 7 March, 1785.

119. Coins from the Swedish colony of St. Bartholomew.